2010 год, 5 листов
Менеджмент организации Вариант I Text 1
WHAT CAN YOU EXPECT ADVERTISING TO DO FOR YOU?
1. Which newspaper or magazine?
Choosing the right place to put your advertisement is crucial. To be cost- effective, the ad must be placed where it reaches the biggest possible section of your potential customers. The journal or paper must be read by the people or businesses you want to talk to and by people at the right level in the organizations or in the right class grouping in the population.
Two important statistics you need to find are the number of copies sold and what is the readership. Larger magazines have their circulation figures independently audited by the Audit Bureau of Circulations (ABC), although it may be necessary to rely on publishers' claims for smaller magazines. Rates charged for space usually bear some sort of relationship to circulation. Do not assume that the cheapest or the most expensive will be the best bet. Try to estimate the cost per reader for any ad you want to put in.
A listing of magazines and journals accepting advertising, together with the prices charged for space can be found in British Rate and Data (BRAD). Look in your local reference library.
2. What size and position of ad?
Clearly the cost of your ad is affected by its size and its position; the bigger the ad and the better the position, the more expensive it will be. For example, an ad on the front page will be seen by more readers and an ad which does not have to compete with others on the same page will be more easily seen, too. There is no clear-cut advice which can be given about whether to go for bigger and better. In a trade magazine, a good rule of thumb is:
in first third of magazine
on a news or editorial page
on a right-hand page,
and one third the size of the page.
3. What goes in the ad?
Here are some general guidelines, none of which is sacrosanct:
have a clear, straightforward message
do not be afraid of white space in an ad
use as few words as you can to get your message across
Over the last thirty years, a new approach to management has been developing. Those favoring it say that the way to increase workers efficiency is to improve their job satisfaction and motivation. Followers of the Quality of Working Life movement (QWL) have been trying our various methods of making work more interesting. These include job enlargement, job enrichment and new forms of group work.
With job enlargement, the worker is given additional tasks it perform. Thus, the operator of word-processor may be asked to do filing duties as well. Job enrichment involves giving extra responsibilities to workers such as production planning, quality control and technical development of equipment. In some organizations, special types of work groups have been formed where workers share responsibility for certain tasks. For example, at the Volvo car plant in Kolmar, Swedeen, assembly workers do not work on a moving production line. They are organized into thirty teams of fifteen to twenty members. They have their, own tasks, like assembling heating and electrical systems, and they work in their own part of the factory.
As can be seen, the basic idea of QWL is that a worker should have an interesting, even challenging job. QWL encourages managers, therefore, to be sensitive to the needs of employees.
The roots of the QWL movement can be traced to the 1920s an 1930s. It was at this time that the famous Hawthorne Studies were carried out. These were held at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company in Chicago, USA, from 1927-32. Most of the studies were directed by Professor Elton Mayo, a Harvard University psychologist. Their aim, initially, was to evaluate the factors influencing productivity. However, the researchers soon directed their attention toward studying people, especially, their social relationships at work.
It all began when the Hawthorne Company investigated the effect of factory lighting on production and workers' morale. They found out that the groups of workers who were studied increased their output whether the lighting was improved or not. This led them to look for the human factor influencing efficiency. To held the in their search they brought in Professor Elton Mayo and his colleagues.
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