Английский язык - Контрольная для СПГАУ

Английский язык - Контрольная для СПГАУ

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2011 год, 30 листов Word
I. Сгруппируйте следующие предложения в зависимости от функции причастия I и переведите их:
1. What were you doing when I telephoned you yesterday? — I was reading an English book. I read English every day. When I was reading my younger sister was preparing her lessons in mathematics in the next-door room. 2. When I came to the library I saw a man there working with my friend. The working man was my friend's father. They were reading journals on an interesting problem of genetics. Working at this problem they had to read many English journals. My friend's father was helping his son because he knows English well.
II. Переведите части предложения, обращая внимание на функции причастия I:
1. The student translating the text is ... . 2. The translating student ... . 3. Translating the text the student ... . 4. The student is translating the text ... . 5. Going along the street I ... . 6. He is going along the street ... . 7. The man going along the street ... .
I. Переведите следующие предложения:
1. The opened book is not English. 2. The work done by those students is very interesting. 3. The given formula is correct. 4. You must read the words written on the blackboard. 5. This translated story is very interesting. 6. The stories translated by us were not very difficult. 7. The students will show their friends from India old houses built many centuries ago and new beautiful houses. 8. The translation made without a dictionary was very good. 9. The method used is important for the experiments.
IV. Прочтите предложения, обращая внимание на форму сказуемого, и ответьте по-русски на вопросы:
1. The scientist has visited our collective farm many times. Ученый знает наш колхоз? 2. He said that the power-station had been constructed on our farm. В колхозе уже есть электричество? 3. The new school will have been finished by the 15th of August. Дети пойдут в новую школу 1 сентября? 4. They have finished the experiment. Я могу присутствовать сейчас во время эксперимента? 5. They had cut (рубить) the trees for timber before they began to builk the canal. Будут деревья мешать строительству канала? 6. The workers will have built the canal by the time I come. Я смогу участвовать в строительстве канала? 7. The students have been sent (посылать)  to the plant. Студенты сами поехали на завод или их послали туда? 8. The farm has been given much (много) farm machinery. Колхоз передал (кому-то) сельскохозяйственные машины или получил их? 9. These young trees were planted after the school had been built. В какой последовательности шли работы по посадке деревьев и строительству школы? 10. The new tractor will have been made by newt autumn. Колхозы уже смогут осенью использовать новую машину?

I. Обращая внимание на форму сказуемых в следующих предложениях, ответьте по-русски на вопросы:
1. This hostel was built many years ago. Здание этого общежития новое или старое? 2. All the books on biology were taken from the library. Можно ли сейчас получить в библиотеке книги по биологии? 3. The problem of farm mechanization will be discussed. Проблему уже обсудили? 4. Many new houses for collective farmers are being built in my village. Колхозники уже живут в новых домах? 5.  At the last lecture on agronomy we were shown a number of crops growing in Moscow region. Знаем ли мы теперь, какие культуры выращиваются в Московской области?
II. Ответьте по-русски на вопросы, поставленные к каждому предложению:
1. I will be asked at the next seminar. Я буду спрашивать кого-то или отвечать кому-то? 2. The young engineers were shown a new laboratory by the dean (декан). Кто кому показывал новую лабораторию? 3. The student was visited at hospital. Студент приходил в больницу или находился в ней? 4. I am always given new books by father. Кто кому всегда дает новые книги? 5. The students are given many experiments to make by the teacher. Кто проводит эксперименты?

V. Перепишите следующие тексты, используя глагол в действительном залоге. Укажите, где это возможно, действующее лицо (they, the scientists и т.п.):
a) Most of the materials are obtained directly or indirectly from the earth. All rocks are composed of minerals. About a thousand minerals are known to us. Minerals are studied and experimented with. Then they are classified into groups.
б) The oldest buildings in architecture are the pyramids of Egypt. A large territory of land in that country is covered with pyramids. They tell us about the culture of prehistoric Egypt. Large blocks of stone were transported over long distances and raised with the help of the most primitive tools. All this work was done by slaves.
VI. Заполните пропуски данными в скобках глаголами в действительном или страдательном залоге:
1. Most of our rivers ... by canals (to connect). 2. The Soviet people ... the Volga and the Don in 1952 (to connect). 3. These problems often ... (to speak about). 4. We ... our work tomorrow (to finish). 5. The students ... many questions at the examination (to ask). 6. He ... me this book next week (to give). 7. We ... the historical monuments of Moscow to the delegation (to show). 8. The lecturer ... his last lecture on types of soil with interesting diagrams (to illustrate). 9. Strength of materials, elements of machines and mechanics, fundamentals of electrical engineering, etc ... by the students of technical institutes (to study). 10. This problem ... by a number of our scientists long ago (to solve).

I. Определите значение модальных глаголов в следующих предложениях:
1. You can't cross the street here. 2. You must heat the mixture for two hours. 3. You should control the temperature of the mixture. 4. It may rain today. Take your umbrella (зонтик). 5. If he doesn't know how to translate the phrase he should ask the teacher. 6. You mustn't smoke here. 7. You can start the experiment today.
III. Найдите предложения, в которых глаголы to have и to be имеют модальное значение, и переведите их:
1. Last summer I had to stay at home. 2. We had much work last summer. 3. She has to get up early: she must prepare for the test. 4. Next autumn the farmers will have good yields. 5. We have to introduce many fertilizers (удобрение) to enrich the soil. 6. The students planted many trees near their Institute and are to plant still more. 7. Soviet people are to realize the Food Programme.

IV. Переведите следующие предложения, обратите внимание на значения слова most: а) самый, очень; б) большинство, бОльшая часть:
1. Most needleaf forests grow in the north of our country. 2. We discussed most important problems at the meeting yesterday. 3. Most students of our group speak English well. 4. Autumn is the most rainy season. 5. This text includes the most defficult words. 6. Most trees near our Institute are broadleaf.
II. Определите, в каких предложениях глаголы to have и to be выражают долженствование. Переведите предложения:
1. The aim of the collective farmers is to improve soil fertility in this area. 2. The students of our group have to work at construcion sites in Siberia in summer. 3. The milk yields of most cows on the farm have been raised this year due to better care. 4. They have a lot of work now. 5. The students are to finish their work in a month. 6. He had worked as a tractor driver before he came here. 7. The task of the students' group is to build a cattle barn. 8. Next year our farm will have many new machines. 9. Irrigation is to be used on many farms in Central Asia. 10. I have never been to virgin lands. 11. Collective farmers have to apply more fertilizers.

I. Заполните пропуски причастиями I или II от глаголов, данных в скобках:
1. A barometer is an instrument ... atmospheric pressure (давление) (to measure). 2. There are different kinds of plants ... in the Polar regions (to grow). 3. The new canals ... the rivers form good water-ways (to join - соединять). 4. The results ... varied with the material ... (to obtain - получать, to use). 5. Our Earth is one of the planets ... by the Sun (to heat - нагревать). 6. The work ... by this young specialist showed good results (to do). 7. ... this book the student found out many interesting things (to read). 8. The acceleration of a body (тело) when ... is constant (to fall). 9. When ... out the experiment the scientist made a lot of calculations (to carry out).
I. Переведите следующие сочетания слов, обращая внимание на значение герундия с разными предлогами:
1. by applying fertilizers...; in applying fertilizers...; for applying fertilizers...; after applying fertilizers...; without applying fertilizers...; 2. by protecting plants...; without protecting plants...; in protecting plants...; for protecting plants...; 3. in increasing the temperature...; without increasing the temperature...; by increasing the temperature...; after increasing the temperature...

II. Сгруппируйте отдельно предложения, в которых подлежащее выражено герундием, и предложения, в которых на первом месте употребляется причастие I в функции обстоятельства:
1. Satisfying the people of the country with food products and industrial goods is the main task of the Soviet government and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. 2. Supplying agriculture with high-quality machinery, we can greatly increase its economic efficiency. 3. Comparing these two plants, one can say that they belong to different varieties. 4. Cultivating cotton has spread further north of the USSR. 5. Moving water from clouds to land is a never-ending cycle. 6. Evaporating water results in forming clouds.
III. Выделите герундий и герундиальные обороты в следующих предложениях и переведите их:
1. People cannot live without producing food, fodder and industrial crops. 2. One can increase milk yields per cow by providing good housing conditions and high-quality feeds. 3. Improving soil fertility is the main task now. 4. The new method of improving this breed of sheep has been discussed at the last conference. 5. In solving the problem we must pay changing the environment and developing new varieties. 6. The students were told about a new wheat variety and its being well adapted to the soil and climatic conditions of the regions. 7. The tractor was examined before the driver's using it. 8. Our having improved the soil fertility will result in higher potato yields. 9. People began cultivating plants many thousand years ago. 10. Everybody knows of wildlife conservation being paid great attention to in our country.

I. Выберите подходящие по смыслу союзы или союзные слова и заполните пропуски в предложениях. Укажите, в каких предложениях придаточные предложения присоединяются бессоюзным способом:
where, which, after, why, that, while, what, who, if, as, since
1. You have not changed ... I saw you last. 2. ... he has finished his work, he may go home. 3. The house ... we live in is new. 4. I will give you the book ... you bring it tomorrow. 5. ... the working day in Vladivostok is coming to an end, it is early (ранний) morning in Kaliningrad. 6. The man ... you are speaking about is in the next door room. 7. ... electricity had been discovered, it came into use in all branches (отрасль) of industry. 8. Torricelli was the first man ... could measure air pressure (давление). 9. Helium is a gas ... we get from the air. 10. The great ocean of air ... surrounds the earth is in motion. 11. I think ... I can finish my work in a week. 12. I do not understand ... you are writing about. 13. Ask him ... he has brought all the books. 14. I do not know ... I will go in summer.
II. Определите, в каких предложениях возможно бессоюзное присоединение придаточных предложений. Дайте обоснование своего ответа:
1. Everybody knows how agriculture is connected with human life. 2. He says that the work was done in time. 3. We know that the sun is our most important source (источник) of energy. 4. The man whom we call (называть) the founder of Periodic Law is Mendeleyev. 5. The greatest problem in dry regions is where one can get water. 6. Man cultivated fruit trees where no vegetables had been grown before. 7. Many things that we use in everyday life are made from plants. 8. An ideal soil is one which is never waterlogged (заболачивать) in summer.

V. Определите, в каких предложениях слово that является союзом/указательным местоимением-определением/указательным местоимением-подлежащим, а где оно употребляется в качестве заменителя ранее употребленного существительного:
1. The distance from the Sun to the Earth is much longer than that from the Moon. 2. In is very cold in the Arctic zone. 3. We worked in that region last year. 4. The year on Mars is twice (в два раза) as long as that on the Earth. 5. That house was built in 1955. 6. You are right. That is clear to me. 7. Do you know that first-year student? 8. Repeat (повторите) all those examples, please. 9. Those were nice days. 10. Here are the abbreviations (сокращения) that are used in scientific texts.
I. Переведите предложения, обоснуйте свой перевод:
1. The man you wanted to see is in the hall. 2. This is the house Timiryazev lived in. 3. The report she made at the last seminar was about the life of plants. 4. The experiment they are speaking about was repeated three times. 5. At last the man we were looking for came. 6. Here you can find any vegetables you want. 7. He is the most interesting man I have ever met. 8. Are you satisfied with the work the students have done? 9. I'll have translated the article you have given my by next Sunday. 10. The young engineer I am working with graduated from Moscow Institute of Agricultural Engineers. 11. The invention he spoke about at the last lecture is very interesting.

II. Определите функции инфинитива в следующих предложениях и переведите их:
1. It is necessary to finish the construction of the new irrigation canal by the end of July. 2. To finish the construction of the new irrigation canal by the end of July is absolutely necessary. 3. To finish the construction of the new irrigation canal by the end of July the builders have to work hard (много). 4. The builders work hard in order to finish the construction of the new irrigation canal by the end of July. 5. The construction of the new irrigation canal is to be finished by the end of July. 6. The new irrigation canal to be constructed here next year will be better than that on the farm "Rassvet".
I. Сгруппируйте следующие предложения в соответствии с той функцией, которую в них выполняет инфинитив, и переведите их:
1. To improve soil fertility collective farmers must apply fertilizers. 2. To solve this problem is very important both for inductry and agriculture. 3. It is important for agriculture to solve this problem now. 4. This soil is too poor to produce high yields. 5. The new method to be used in cattle breeding was discussed at the conference. 6. To become a good engineer one has to know maghematics well. 7. The plant must have better equipment in order to increase its produce. 8. This area is big enough to cultivate different kinds of vegetables. 9. The new BAM station to be constructed will have original architecture. 10. To work on the farm is necessary for every student of an agricultural institute.

IV. Сгруппируйте предложения с глаголом to have в зависимости от его сочетаемости с другим глаголом или существительным:
1. The farmers have built new cottages. The farmers have new cottages. The farmers have to build new cottages. 2. The farm has large irrigated fields. The new canal has irrigated the fields. The farm has to irrigate its fields. 3. By 1970 the Institute had already trained many young specialists. 4.  The new canal has irrigated large areas. 5. The builders had to work one more week on the farm. 6. A few students of our Institute have taken part in the electrification of the village.
IV. Сгруппируйте следующие предложения в зависимости от функции глагола to be:
1. There are some artificial seas (море) in our country. 2. The artificial seas are large and deep. 3. The artificial seas are to give water to the new canals.4. The artificial seas are made in order to (для того чтобы) have big reservoirs of water for irrigation. 5. Venus is a planet. 6. The undergraduates are to take their examinations at the end of the academic year.7. Moscow is much visited by foreign tourists. 8. When Venus is in the west, it is seen in the evening. 9. There are three types of agricultural education in Britain.


I. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них глагол-сказуемое и определите его видо-временную форму и залог. Переведите предложения на русский язык. В разделе (б) обратите внимание на перевод пассивных конструкций.
а)    1. Astronomers have measured the exact length of the day. 2. Astronomers find that the day is increasing by 0.002 seconds each century.
б)    1. The chemical properties of an element are determined by the orbiting electrons. 2. As a rule one great discovery is generally followed by nu¬merous others.

II. Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните Participle I и Participle II и установите функции каждого из них, т.е. укажите, является ли оно определением, обстоятельством или частью глагола-сказуемого. Переведите предложения на русский язык.
1. The cloud chamber (камера Вильсона) is one of the devices used to detect the presence of radioactivity.
2. Matter consists of one or a number of basic elements occurring in nature.
3. One can use several modern devices while detecting and measuring radioactivity.
4. When heated to a certain temperature, this alloy increases in volume.

III.    Перепишите следующие предложения; подчеркните в каждом из них модальный глагол или его эквивалент; предложения переведите.
1. We can think of heat as a special form of kinetic energy.
2. A computer should solve complicated problems many millions of times faster than a mathematician.
3. New types of plastics had to be obtained for space technology.
4. To measure the vast distances between different planets scientists have to use special instruments.

IV.    Прочитайте и устно переведите с 1-го по 3-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2-й и 3-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1.    Powell — Пауэлл
2.    particle physics — физика элементарных частиц
3.    the Pugwush Conferences — Пагуошские конференции
4.    were determined — были полны решимости
5.    won a scholarship — получил (но конкурсу) стипендию
6.    position — должность
7.    sub-nuclear particle — субъядерная частица

С.F. POWELL1 (1903-1969)
1. Powell was a prominent English scientist noted for his techniques and discoveries in particle physics.2 He was also deeply concerned with problems relating to the social responsibility of scientists. Powell was a leader in the World Federation of Scientific Workers in the mid-1950s and was a founder of the Pugwush Conferences3 on Science and World Affairs in 1957. As a public man jand in his published articles Powell stressed the perils of destructive weapons and the need for international cooperation.
2.    Powell was born in December 1903 in England. His parents were poor and they were determined1 to give their children a good education to increase their opportunities for a better life. In 1921 Powell won a scholarship5 of one of the colleges at Cambridge which he graduated in 1925 with first-class honours in science. He started his scientific career at the Cavendish laboratory headed by Ernest Rutherford. After gaining his scientific degree at Cambridge in 1928 Powell accepted a position6 at the new Physics laboratory in the University of Bristol. Powell spent the rest of his career there advancing to professor in 1948 and director of the laboratory in 1964.
3.    In 1947 Powell's Bristol group identified a new particle in the cosmic radiation. Powell and other two scientists discovered π-meson and demonstrated that this sub-nuclear particle7 was produced directly in nuclear reactions and rapidly decayed in flight, producing μ-meson. The discovery solved a complicated scientific problem and helped open a new era of particle physics.
4.    Powell continued to develop and apply the photographic method of Bristol. His laboratory became the source of new experimental discoveries in meson physics and an international training centre for physicists of many countries. In 1950 he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his development of the photographic method and his meson discoveries.

V. Прочитайте 4-й абзац текста и вопрос к нему. Из приведенных вариантов ответа укажите номер предложения, содержащего правильный ответ на поставленный вопрос:
For what discovery was Powell awarded the Nobel Prize?
1.    ... for the role he played in the establishment of the European Centre for Nuclear Research.
2.    ... for his development of the photographic method and his meson discoveries.
3.    ... for a new technique for detecting high-energy particles.

There are a number of ways in which a government can organize its economy and the type of system chosen is critical in shaping environment in which businesses operate.
An economic system is quite simply the way in which a country uses its available resources (land, workers, natural resources, machinery etc.) to satisfy the demands of its inhabitants for goods and services. The more goods and services that can be produced from these limited resources, the higher the standard of living enjoyed by the country's citizens.
There tire three main economic systems:
Planned economics (Плановая экономика)
Planned economies are sometimes called "command economies" because the state commands the use of resources (such as labour and factories) that are used to produce goods and services as it owns factories, land and natural resources. Planned economies are economies with a large amount of central planning and direction, when the government takes all the decisions, the government decides production and consumption. Planning of this kind is obviously very difficult, very complicated to do, and the result is that there is no society, which is completely a command economy. The actual system employed varies from state to state, but command or planned economies have a number of common features.
Firstly, the state decides precisely what the nation is to produce. It usually plans five years ahead. It is the intention of the planners that there should be enough goods and services for all.
Secondly, industries are asked to comply with these plans and each industry and factory is set a production target to meet. If each factory and farm meets its target, then the state will meet its targets as set out in the five-year plans. You could think of the factory and farm targets to be objectives which, if met, allow the nation's overall aim to be reached.
A planned economy is simple to understand but not simple to operate. It does, however, have a number of advantages:
*    Everyone in society receives enough goods and services to enjoy a basic standard of living.
*    Nations do not waste resources duplicating production.
*    The state can use its control of the economy to divert resources to wherever it wants. As a result, it can ensure that everyone receivers a good education, proper health care or that transport is available.
Several disadvantages also exist. It is these disadvantages that have led to many nations abandoning planned economics over recent years:    
*    There is no incentive for individuals to work hard in planned economies.
*    Any profits that arc made arc paid to the government.
*    Citizens cannot start their own businesses and so new ideas rarely come forward.
*    As a result, industries in planned economies can be very inefficient.
A major problem faced by command or planned economies is that of deciding what to produce, Command economies tend to be slow when responding to changes in people's tastes and fashions. Planners are likely to underproduce some items as they cannot predict changes in demand. Equally, some products, which consumers regard as obsolete and unattractive, may be overproduced. Planners are afraid to produce goods and services unless they are sure substantial amounts will be purchased. This leads to delays and queues for some products.

inhabitants - жители, население
to own - владеть
natural resources - природные ресурсы
a large amount - большой объем
central planning and direction - центральное планирование и руководство
consumption - потребление
obviously - очевидно
complicated - сложный
to have a number of common features - иметь ряд общих черт
intention - намерение to comply with - подчиняться
a production targtit to meet - производственная задача (задание), которую надо выполнить
an objective - цель, задача
an overall aim - общая цель
to enjoy ft basic standard of living - иметь основной уровень жизни
to dupllcute production - дублировать производство
to divert - отвлекать (напр., ресурсы на другие цели)
to abandon - отказываться от чего-либо
a major problem faced by command or planned economics - основная про-блема, стоящая перед командной или плановой экономикой
changes in tastes and fashions - изменения вкусов и моды
to underproduce - недопроизводить
to regard smth as - воспринимать что-либо, относиться к чему-либо как...
 obsolete (syn. out of date) - устарелый, вышедший из употребления
to overproduce - перепроизводить
delays and queues - зд. перебои (с товарами) и очереди
The Role of Market
Reports in the press tend to say "the market did thus" or "the market expected good news on the economic front", as if the market were a single living entity with a single conscious mind. This is not, of course, the ease. To understand reports of market behaviour you have to bear in mind the way the market works.
A market is simply a mechanism, which allows individuals or organizations to trade with each other. Markets bring together buyers and sellers of goods and services. In some cases, such as a local fruit stall, buyers and sellers meet physically. In other cases, such as the stock market, business can be transacted over the telephone, almost by remote control. There's no need to go into these details. Instead, we use a general definition of markets.
A market is a shorthand expression for the process by which households' decisions about consumption of alternative goods, firms' decisions about what and how to produce, and workers' decisions about how much and for whom to work are all reconciled by adjustment of prices.
Prices of goods and of resources, such as labour, machinery and land, adjust to ensure that scarce resources are used to produce those goods and services that society demands.
Much of economics is devoted to the study of how markets end prices enable society to solve the problems of what, how and for whom to produce. Suppose you buy a hamburger for your lunch. What does this have to do with markets and prices? You chose the cafe because it was fast, convenient and cheap. Given your desire to eat, and your limited resources, the low hamburger price told you that this was a good way to satisfy your appetite. You probably prefer steak but that is more expensive. The price of steak is high enough to ensure that society answers the "for whom" question about lunchtime steaks in favour of someone else.
Now think about the seller's viewpoint. The cafe owner is in business because, given the price of hamburger meat, the rent and the wages that must be paid, it is still possible to sell hamburgers at a profit. If rents were higher, it might be more profitable to sell hamburgers in a cheaper area or to switch to luxury lunches for rich executives on expense accounts. The student behind the counter is working there because it is a suitable part-time job, which pays a bit of money. If the wage were much lower it would hardly be worth working at all. Conversely, the job is unskilled and there are plenty of students looking for such work, so owners of cafes do not have to offer very high wages.
Prices are guiding your decision to buy a hamburger, the owner's decision to sell hamburgers, and the student's decision to take the job. Society is allocating resources - meat, buildings, and labour - into hamburger production through the price system. If nobody liked hamburgers, the owner could not sell enough at a price that covered the cast of running the cafe and society would devote no resources to hamburger production People's desire to eat hamburgers guides resources into hamburger production. However, if cattle contracted a disease, thereby reducing the economy's ability to produce meat products, competition to purchase more scarce supplies of beef would bid up the price of beef, hamburger producers would be forced to raise prices, and consumers would buy more cheese sandwiches for lunch. Adjustments in prices would encourage society to reallocate resources to reflect the increased scarcity of cattle.
There were several markets involved in your purchase of a hamburger. You and the cafe owner were part of the market for lunches, The student behind the counter was part of the local labour market. The cafe owner was part of the local wholesale meat market and the local market for rented buildings. These descriptions of markets are not very precise. Were you part of the market for lunches, the market for prepared food or the market for sandwiches to which you would have turned if hamburgers had been more expensive? That is why we have adopted a very general definition of markets, which emphasizes that they are arrangements through, which prices influence allocation of scarce resources.

to bear in mind (syn. to keep in mind) - иметь в виду
a local fruit stall - фруктовый ларек
stock market - фондовая биржа, рынок акций
to transact business (syn, to make n deal) - совершать сделку
by remote control - при помощи дистанционного управления
to go Into details - вдаваться в подробности
a general definition - общее определение
a shorthand expression - краткое, рабочее выражение (определение) households' decisions - решения домохозяйств
to reconcile - приводить в соответствие, согласовывать
by adjustment of prices - посредством корректировки цен
to demand - требовать
given (syn. taking into account, consideration) - при условии, что,.., учитывая limited resources - ограниченные ресурсы
to satisfy one's appetite - удовлетворять аппетит
to answer the question in favour of smb else - решать вопрос в пользу кого-либо другого
the seller's viewpoint - точка зрения продавца
 the cafe owner - владелец кафе
the rent - арендная плата
to switch to luxury lunches - переключиться на долгие обеды
rich executives - состоятельные служащие
behind the counter - за прилавком
suitable - подходящий
to suit - подходить    
part-time job (ant. full-time job) - работа с неполной занятостью
a bit of money {ant. scads of money) - немного денег\
it would hardly be worth working at all - вряд ли вообще имеет смысл работать    
conversely (syn. on the opposite, on the contrary) - наоборот, напротив unskilled job - неквалифицированная работа
to guide one's decision - влиять на чье-либо решение    I
through the price system - через систему цен
to cover the cost - покрывать расходы
to run the cafe - содержать кафе
to devote resources - выделять ресурсы
to guide resources into hamburger production - направить ресурсы на производство гамбургеров
cattle - крупный рогатый скот    
to contract a disease - подхватить болезнь
thereby - следовательно, таким образом    
to reduce the economy's ability - снижать возможности экономики competition - состязание, конкуренция
to purchase scarce supplies - скупать дефицитные ресурсы
to reallocate resources - перераспределять ресурсы
 to reflect the scarcity - отражать дефицит
to be involved in - бьггь задействованным в
the local labour market - локальный рынок труда
the local wholesale market - локальный оптовый рынок
the local market for rented buildings - локальный рынок аренды помещений
precise descriptions of markets - точные описания рынков
to adopt a definition - принять определение
to adopt a child In a family - принять ребенка в семью, усыновить
to emphasize - подчеркнуть, выделить
arrangements through, which prices influence smlh - структуры (механизмы), посредством которых цены влияют на что-либо


Command and market economies both have significant faults. Partly because of this, an intermediate system has developed, known as mixed economies. A mixed economy means very much what it says as it contains elements of both market and planned economies. At one extreme we have a command economy, which does not allow individuals to make economic decisions, at the other extreme we have a free market, where individuals exercise considerable economic freedom of choice without any government restrictions. Between these two extremes lies a mixed economy. In mixed economies some resources are controlled by the government whilst others are used in response to the demands of consumers. Technically, all the economies of the world are mixed: it is just the balance elements between market and planned elements that alters. Some countries are nearer to command economies, while others are closer to free market economies. So, for example, Hong Kong has some state-controlled industry, while Cuba has some privately owned and controlled firms.
The aim of mixed economies is to avoid disadvantages of both systems while enjoying the benefits that they both offer. So, in a mixed economy the government and the private sector interact in solving economic problem. The state controls the share of the output through taxation and transfer payments and intervenes to supply essential items such as health, education and defence, while private firms produce cars, furniture, electrical items and similar, less essential products. The UK is a mixed economy: some services are provided by the state (for example, health care and defence) whilst a range of privately owned businesses offer other goods and services. The Conservative government under Margaret Thatcher switched many businesses from being state-owned and controlled to being privately owned as part of its privatization programme. This has taken the UK economy further away from the planned system.



There are a large number of statistics produced regularly on the operation of the world's major economics. The UK's economy is no exception in this respect. You will probably have noticed that often the headlines in newspapers or important items on television news programmes relate to economic date and the implications for individuals and businesses. A prime example of this occurs when interest rates are increased: the media responds by highlighting the adverse effects on businesses with debts and householders with mortgages. Date is provided on a wide range of aspects of the economy's operation. Statistics are available to show:
•    the level of unemployment
•    the level of inflation
•    a country's trade balance with the rest of the world
•    production volumes in key industries and the economy as a whole
•    the level of wages
•    raw material prices,  and so forth.
The main statistics illustrating the economy's behaviour relate to the level of activity in the economy. That is, they tell us whether the economy is working at full capacity using all or nearly all, available resources of labour, machinery and other factors of production or whether these resources are being under-utilized.     
The unemployment figures for the economy give an indicator of the level of activity. As the economy moves towards a recession and a lower level of prosperity it is likely that unemployment figures will rise. An alternative measure of the level of activity is national income statistics, which show the value of a nation’s output during a year. Economists use the term Gross National Product to describe this data. Changes in the level or trends of such key data have great significance for businesses, as well shall see later.
There are numerous sources of data on the economy of which we can make use. The government publishes much through the Treasury, Department of Employment. The Central Statistical Office, which was established during the Second World War, publishes about half of the government's economic data. Much of this is contained in its annual publication, “The Annual Abstract of Statistics". It also publishes the equally valuable "Social Trends" annually. Additionally, private organizations, such as the banks, building societies and universities, publish figures on various aspects of the economy's performance. Economic statistics are presented in many forms, the most common being graphs and tables. Although these statistics can be valuable in assisting managers, they should be treated with some caution when predicting the future trend of the economy and thus helping the business to take effective decisions.


1) Моя семья
2) Моя биография
3) Мой университет
4) Мой рабочий день студента

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